Funding Risk is the risk that the Group is unable to achieve its business plans due to liquidity risk and capital risk or the management of structural balance sheet risks.
Liquidity Risk is the risk that the Group is unable to meet its obligations as they fall due resulting in: an inability to support normal business activity; failing to meet liquidity regulatory requirements; or changes to credit ratings.
Capital Risk is the risk that the Group is unable to maintain appropriate capital ratios which could lead to an inability to support business activity; failing to meet regulatory requirements; or changes to credit ratings.
Structural Risk relates to the management of non-contractual risks and predominantly arises from the impact on the Group’s balance sheet of changes in primarily interest rates on income or foreign exchange rates on capital ratios.
The Board approves the Group’s Liquidity Risk Appetite, Capital Plan and approach for Structural Hedging.
Group Risk provides oversight review and challenge to the Liquidity, Capital and Structural Risk Control Frameworks. The Risk function also provides direct input into as well as approval of various aspects of the calibration, calculation and reporting for these key risks.
Group Treasury has responsibility for implementing the Key Risk control frameworks for Liquidity, Capital and Structural Risks at both the Group and Legal Entity level and for ensuring that the firm maintains compliance with all local regulatory minimum limit requirements relating to these key risks.
Oversight and challenge is provided by local and Group Asset Liability Committees all reporting up to Group Treasury Committee which meets at least monthly.
Key specific risks and mitigation
Specific areas and scenarios where funding risk could lead to higher costs or limit Barclays ability to execute its business plans include:
Increasing capital requirements
There are a number of regulatory developments that impact capital requirements. Most significantly Basel 3 as adopted into EU law through the fourth Capital Requirements Directive (CRD4) and Capital Requirements Regulation which are still going through the EU legislative process. Additional capital requirements may arise from other proposals including the recommendations of the Independent Commission on Banking.
Barclays continues to prepare for the implementation of CRD4 and includes the estimated impact of future regulatory changes in its capital planning framework. Current forecasts already include the impact of Basel 3 as currently understood, and forecasts will be continually updated as CRD4 and other proposals for regulatory developments are finalised. Further detail on the regulatory developments impacting capital is included in the section .
Maintaining capital strength
A material adverse deterioration in the Group’s financial performance can affect the capacity to support further capital deployment. The Capital Plan is continually monitored against the internal target capital ratios with Risk, the business and legal entities through a proactive and forward looking approach to capital risk management which ensures that the Plan remains appropriate. The capital management process also includes an internal and regulatory stress testing process which informs the Group capital plan. Further detail on the Group’s regulatory capital resources is included in the section .
Changes in funding availability and costs
Market liquidity, the level of customer deposits and the Group’s ability to raise wholesale funding impacts both the Group’s net interest margin, which is sensitive to volatility in cost of funding, and its ability to both fulfil its obligations and support client lending, trading activities and investments. Large unexpected outflows, for example from customer withdrawals, ratings downgrades or loan drawdowns, could also result in forced reduction in the balance sheet, inability to fulfil lending obligations and regulatory breaches. The Liquidity Profile is monitored constantly and is supported by a range of early warning indicators to ensure the profile remains appropriate and sufficient liquid resources are held to protect against unexpected outflows. Further details are provided in the section.
Local balance sheet management and redenomination risk
The introduction of capital controls or new currencies by countries (for example in the Eurozone) to mitigate current stresses could have an ongoing or point-in-time impact on the performance of local balance sheets of certain Group companies based on the asset quality, types of collateral and mix of liabilities. Local assets and liability positions are carefully monitored by local asset and liability committees with oversight by Group Treasury. For further information see the .